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Glossary

 

Abaxial: Underside

Achene: Small dry fruit resembling a seed

Actinomorphic: Round

Acuminate: Pointed with a sharp, tapered tip

Acute: Pointed with an acute angle

Adaxial: Top side

Adnation: Fusion of different floral parts, such as stamens to petals

Adventitious roots: Roots along stems

Alternate leaves: Attached singly (compare with opposite and whorled)

Anther: Pollen-sac on a stamen

Apiculate: With a small tooth at the tip

Attenuate: Tapered

Axillary bud: lateral bud

Berry: Fleshy fruit with seeds

Bipinnate leaves: Pinnately compound leaves where each leaflet is itself pinnately compound (twice pinnate)

Bract: leaf associated with flowers, may be colorful or shaped differently from regular leaves

Calyx: Collective term for all the sepals

Calyx lobe: Sepal

Campanulate: Bell-shaped

Capsule: Dry fruit that opens along preset lines

Category I and II Invasive Exotics: See Introduction. Link:  http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Compound leaves: Leaves with more than one blade (leaflet): may be pinnately compound or palmately compound

Connation: Fusion of like floral parts, such as petals to petals forming a corolla tube (compare with adnation)

Cordate: Heart-shaped (or with a notch at the base of the leaf)

Corolla: Term for all the petals of a flower (may form a corolla tube)

Corolla tube: A tube formed by fusion among the petals of a flower

Corymb: Raceme where all the flower stalks (pedicels) rise to the same height, giving the inflorescence a flat top

Costa palmate Palm: leaf stalk (petiole) intrudes into the leaf blade

Crenate: With dull rounded marginal teeth

Cultlvar: A human-derived variant of a species

Cyme: Inflorescence where the central axis ends in a flower or fruit and growth proceeds by side-branches (this pattern may repeat)

Decumbent: Sprawling

Dehiscence: Breaking open (as in capsule fruits)

Dentate: With marginal teeth that stick straight out

Dichotomous: Forked

Dioecious: With separate male and female individuals

Drupe: Stone fruit (such as a peach)

Elliptic: Elliptic

Emarginate: Notched at the tip

Entire margin: leaf margin having no teeth, smooth

Epiphyte: Plant that lives perched on another plant, an airplant

Epithet: Second word in a species name

Even-pinnate leaves: Pinnately compound with an even number of leaflets (paripinnate)

Falcate: Sickle-shaped

Fastigiate: With upswept branches

Filament: The stalk of a stamen

Florida native: See Introduction

Follicle: Dry fruit that splits open along one line

Frond: large complex leaf, as in ferns and palms

Glabrous: Hairless

Gland: Plants often have tiny, nearly microscopic sticky hairs, or sticky spots

Glaucous: With waxy-milky colored coloration

Hastula: In palms, a raised point where the petiole joins the palmate leaf blade

Hirsute: Woolly or Silky

Hispid: Bristly

Imbricate: Overlapping

Imparipinnate: Odd pinnate

Induplicate: Opening upward (referring to leaflets in some palm fronds)

Inferior ovary: Ovary hanging below and outside of the flower (compare with superior ovary)

Inflorescence: Flower cluster

Internode: Stem between points of leaf attachment

Invasive Exotic: A species that escapes cultivation into natural areas

Involute: Curled upward or inward

Lacerate: Ragged

Lanceolate: Shaped like a candle flame, lance-shaped

Lateral bud: The bud above each leaf, the axillary bud

Leaflet: One of multiple blades in a compound leaf

Legume (fruit): Pea-ish or bean-ish pod

Lenticels: Corky breathing pores on stems

Lingulate: Tongue-shaped, strap-shaped

Locule: Hollow space In an ovary, a chamber

Mesoamerica: Mexico and Central America

Monoecious: With separate male and female flowers on the same plant

Native: See Introduction

Nerve: Vein in a leaf blade

Node: Place where one or leaves is (are) attached

Oblanceolate: Shaped like an inverted candle flame

Obovate: Broadest above the middle, shaped like an upside down egg

Obtuse: Blunt

Odd-pinnate leaves: Pinnately compound leaves with an odd number of leaflets (imparipinnate)

Opposite leaves: Attached in pairs, two by two

Orbicular: Circular

Ovary: Seed-producing portion of the flower (the bottom of the pistil, becomes the fruit)

Ovate: Egg-shaped outline

Ovule: Immature seed (before pollination)

Palmately compound leaves: leaves with multiple leaflets radiating from a single hub (think of a marijuana leaf)

Panicle: Multibranched inflorescence (each branch is a raceme more or less) (compare with thyrse)

Palmately lobed: With lobes radiating from a central point

Papilionaceous: Resembling a pea flower

Paripinnate: Even pinnate

Pedicel: Flower stalk

Peduncle: Inflorescence stalk

Peltate: Tack-shaped, with stalk attached at the center

Petiole: leaf stalk

Pinnae: leaflets in a compound leaf

Pinnate leaves or pinnately compound leaves: leaves with a stalk having multiple leaftets along the stalk (many ferns and palms have pinnately compound leaves)

Pinnately lobed: With lobes jutting out from the sides of a leaf

Pistil: The female unit at the center of a flower

Placenta: Point of seed attachment

Pubescent: Hairy

Reins: long dangling threads

Reduplicate: Opening downward (referring to folds in leaflets on some palm fronds)

Runner: Stolon

Raceme: Inflorescence where flowers on individual stalks (pedicels) are arranged along a single axis

Revolute: Curled downward

Rhizome: Horizontal stem, often underground

Rotate: Wheel-shaped (in flowers), plate-shaped, shallow bowl

Rugose: Wrinkled

Salverform: Shaped like a witch hat (in flowers)

Samara: Winged fruit

Scabrous: Rough, scratchy

Scurfy: Needs a shave

Sepals: Green lobes at the base of a flower, under the petals

Serrate: With marginal teeth resembling saw teeth

Serrulate: With tiny marginal sawteeth

Sessile: Having no stalk

Simple leaves: With one blade (compare with compound leaves)

Sorus: Cluster of fern spore cases, usually visible on the undersides of fern leaves

Spike: Inflorescence with flowers seated directly on a single axis

Spine: Thorn

Spore: Single cell that behaves somewhat like a seed

Stamens: Pollen-producing floral parts

Stigma: Pollen-receiving tip of the pistil, at the top of the style

Stipules: Small and variable outgrowths, usually paired, located on either side of the leaf attachment

Stolon: Above-ground horizontal stem (type of rhizome), a runner

Strigose: With bent hairs, usually swollen at the base

Style: The portion of the pistil connecting the ovary with the stigma

Subshrub: Small shrub or one that is not very woody

Subulate: Awl-shaped, dagger-shaped

Succulent: Thickened, fleshy, plump

Sucker: Basal shoot

Superior ovary: Ovary up inside the flower, like an egg in a nest

Sympodial: Zig-zag growth

Synonym: Extra name applied to a species

Tendril: Twisted organ for clinging

Terete: Round in cross-section, A crayon is terete

Thyrse: Branched Inflorescence where the branches are cymes more or less (compare with panicle)

Tomentose: Fuzzy

Trifoliate: With three leaflets, like poison ivy

Truncate: Squared off

Undulate: Wavy

Urceolate: Urn-shaped

Variegated (variegation): Color pattern in the leaves

Whorled leaves: Attached in clusters of three or more

Zygomorphic: Bilaterally symmetrical

 

 


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